Higher Learning Research Communications

Digital Object Identifier



Elizabeth Johnston, ORCID: 0000-0003-0695-1475; Cheryl Burleigh, ORCID: 0000-0003-2393-5477; Xeno Rasmusson; ORCID: 0000-0002-7026-2183; Patrick Turner, ORCID: 0000-0003-3947-2841; Drena Valentine, ORCID: 0000-0002-0798-9179; Liston Bailey, ORCID: 0000-0002-2005-479X


Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore, develop, test, and refine processes to incorporate meaningful and equitable use of open educational resources (OER) in online classrooms.

Method: The intent of this qualitative study was to use an action research process of interactive discussions between higher education practitioners to shape collective understanding of how to teach in an online learning environment using OER.

Results: The study resulted in the identification six exemplar learning opportunities which could be incorporated into the blended pedagogical model. Each exemplar OER included all four types of knowledge as defined by Bloom's taxonomy and required skills of observe and envision as defined in the Studio Habits of Mind (SHoM). A second criteria for our purposive selection was that each exemplar could be used to teach in multiple contexts for multiple purposes across a spectrum of higher education online courses.

Conclusion: This study reminds us that educators need a new mindset to work with multimedia and visual resources. The blended pedagogical model provides scaffold teaching and learning opportunities that were not visible in either Bloom's taxonomy or SHoM alone. This blended pedagogical model scaffolds the “how” when using a visual approach to curriculum development that may enrich the learning experiences of students when presented in online higher education classrooms.

Implication for Practice: Educators might replicate this study or transfer findings for purposes of comparing and testing further the use of OER in their online higher education classes to further engage student learning. Applying new understanding in a project that is shared with the larger learning group is essential as students understand and begin to own new skills and insights. The blended pedagogical model presented in this paper could be helpful to educators to maximize the benefits from the integration of technology and OERs to support online higher education.