Higher Learning Research Communications

Digital Object Identifier



Karina Dyliaeva, 0009-0006-9762-8217

Steven B Rothman, 0000-0003-0383-533X

Nader Ghotbi, 0000-0002-6735-8627


Objective: The purpose of the study was to elucidate the current challenges to inclusive education (IE) at the university level in Japan, thereby addressing the gap between policy and the provision of inclusion.

Method: This qualitative case study of a private university supporting inclusive policies in Japan included content analysis of data collected through semi-structured interviews to ascertain themes.

Results: The four identified themes were: inclusion practices as a conceptual challenge, conflicting practice of reasonable accommodations, inclusion management gaps, and barriers to and opportunities for inclusive education.

Conclusions: There is a significant disconnect between legal obligation and actual implementation of accommodations. Results demonstrate the difficulties in accommodating students due to rigid procedural requirements for accommodation, such as self-reporting documentation by students.

Implications: Contradiction between inclusion policy and practice related to students with disabilities hinders the provision of accommodation services to university students in Japan.