Higher Learning Research Communications

Digital Object Identifier



Torres, ORCID 0009-0004-5966-8539
Saribas, ORCID 0009-0009-0153-7815


Objectives: The purpose of the study was to investigate how tutors approached second language (L2) errors when working with advanced graduate students in structured one-on-one feedback sessions.

Method: The longitudinal, qualitative case study used data from immediate, retrospective tutor reflections and in-session interactions to follow two tutors as they worked with four advanced L2 writers. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data.

Results: Three themes emerged: Error identification, error focus, and learner uptake. The treatment of error in advanced L2 writing necessitated negotiation with the students and deviation from the set tutoring protocol to serve student needs. Tutors took varying perspectives on assessment of session efficacy depending on the types of errors addressed.

Conclusions: Tutors’ reflections and session data revealed the need to negotiate and maintain flexibility in feedback protocols intended for advanced L2 writers.

Implications for Theory and Practice: Adding to the research literature exploring the teacher variable in corrective feedback, this study supports the notion of feedback as a form of mediation. We encourage flexibility in feedback practices with L2 writers and support the need for tutor training in these perspectives.