This research investigates the relationship between business education students’ human capital and core values of sustainable economic development from a gender perspective. This research specifically investigates four interrelated questions. First, do male and female business education students experience different types of general human capital? Second, do male and female business education students possess different types of specific human capital? Third, do differences in both male and female business education students’ general human capital have a differential effect on sustainable development of Nigerian economy? And finally, do differences in both male and female business education students’ specific human capital have a differential effect on sustainable development of Nigerian economy? To answer these questions, bivariate correlation was employed. The hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance and multiple regressions. Using a survey data of all the final-year undergraduate students (N = 375) of business education in Federal Universities in South-South geopolitical region of Nigeria, the results showed a positive correlation between general and specific human capital and core values sustainable development. Male and female business education students experience almost the same type of general human capital. The results also showed that male students possess higher level of specific human capital than female students. The results further showed that changes or variations in core values of sustainable development caused by both general and specific human capital are higher in male than the female students. Logical conclusions and implications for future practices are discussed.