Educational opportunity is unequally distributed in the United States, most notably by race and economic status. Commonly practiced in K–12 schools across the country, tracking and ability grouping serve to exacerbate those existing inequities. Recent renewed activism for racial and economic justice, coupled with concerns over learning loss due to COVID-19 school closures, makes this an ideal time for educators to reconsider a formerly well-known and ambitious whole-school reform system called the Paideia Program. The system itself is described and a comprehensive review of research and literature follows. This review demonstrates Paideia’s potential to improve educational outcomes and thus help to equalize educational opportunity across demographic lines, in and of itself a rationale for updated research on its implementation and effects.