Journal of Educational Research and Practice




Literacy influences all aspects of life. Unfortunately, a rising number of students struggle with reading and spelling, which can result in enormous educational barriers. Difficulties in literacy accompanied by learning-related problem behavior can create additional risk factors. Effective interventions for these students should consider individual needs and focus on multiple components of learning simultaneously. The present single-case study focused on the effects of motivational reading racetracks, with and without self-graphing, on the word-reading and spelling performance of three third graders with severe literacy and behavior problems. Our intervention was carried out three times a week over a 5-week period. The results show strong effects of the racetracks on reading, while the self-graphing component did not seem to be an additional booster. Regarding spelling, the ability to read words was not equivalent to being able to spell all words correctly. However, effects were found when self-graphing was added. In sum, the data suggest that, while it was effective to practice reading using racetracks without motivational reinforcers, it was not sufficient to merely practice spelling. Nevertheless, self-graphing had a positive effect on spelling when attention was focused on spelling the words correctly.