A research team conducted an evaluation of a laptop initiative in 18 North Carolina high schools through administrator, teacher, and student focus groups; teacher and student surveys; and classroom observations. The study aimed to provide information about the value of the laptop initiative in enhancing student learning. In addition, it intended to identify challenges to the successful implementation of 1:1 programs, strategies for meeting those challenges, and services and supports needed to enable successful 1:1 programs throughout the state. This paper explores how the initiative affected instructional practice in areas such as technology use, communication, the role of the teacher, and the learning environment. It also discusses unique challenges for teachers in a 1:1 environment, as well as implications for educators and administrators.