Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences


Although the use of antenatal and other skilled maternal health delivery services in Nigeria was reported to be on the increase, this research explored whether geopolitical zone of residence and place of domicile are associated with the number of antenatal visits and place of delivery. A quantitative cross-sectional study based on secondary data from the Demographic and Health Survey was used to examine the relationship between women’s geopolitical zone of residence, place of domicile (rural/urban), and the number of antenatal visits (categorized as fewer than four or four or more) and delivery (home or health facility). A total of 33,385 women aged 15–49 years were recruited from 888 clusters spread across all the 36 states and the federal capital territory of Nigeria using a stratified two stage proportionate to size cluster design. A higher proportion of women from the South West and North Central zones had made four or more antenatal care visits compared to the other geopolitical zones. The difference was statistically significant even after controlling for differences in education, income, ethnicity, religion, autonomy, and place of domicile (adjusted odd ratio = 2.062; 95% confidence interval [1.897, 2.241]; p < .05). Healthcare policy makers should consider the potential impact of geopolitical zones and place of domicile to enable the development of an all-inclusive strategy to robustly address maternal health services in Nigeria.