Date of Conferral



Doctor of Public Health (DrPH)


Public Health


Peter B. Anderson


Immunization has been recognized globally as a cost-effective public health intervention. However, despite its benefits, children in northern Nigeria are still adversely affected by the negative consequences of inadequate uptake of immunization. The purpose of this study was to assess antenatal care and maternal sociocultural determinants that influence childhood immunization within 2 months of birth in northern Nigeria. Constructs of social cognitive theory were applied to this retrospective correlational cross-sectional inquiry involving women 15-49 years old in northern Nigeria. Secondary data (the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey) were analyzed using univariate, bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) predictors of uptake of childhood immunization within 2 months of birth were the person who delivered antenatal care, the number of antenatal care visits, the number of tetanus injections, maternal educational level, religion, wealth index, husband/partner educational level, and the person who decides on health care. Educated Christian women from middle-class or rich homes, whose husbands/partners were also educated and who jointly decided on health care, made numerous contacts with health care professionals, and received at least one tetanus injection during antenatal care, had a higher likelihood of immunizing their children within 2 months of birth. The positive social change implications for this study include providing evidence of deterrents to childhood immunization that could lead to relevant policies and interventions leading to healthier children, communities, and society.