Download Full Text (1.3 MB)
The popular answer to the question of what can be done to improve standardized test scores is to raise expectations. However, high expectations do not always result in high test scores (Tsiplakides & Keramida, 2010). The problem was a lack of research on when high expectations are productive and when they are not. Transformational leadership is embraced by principals, but exactly what behaviors that entails could be more fully explained.