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Slumping world aluminum prices have energized some aluminum producers to institute strategies to reduce product costs. This multiple comparative case study explored the strategies used by 4 aluminum producers in Western Europe: 2 companies that have successfully reduced production costs and 2 companies that have not. Wicksteed’s economic theory of production and production costs served as the conceptual framework for this research. Data were analyzed using pattern finding, a recursive approach to data analysis established by Miles, Huberman, and Saldana. Six themes emerged: (a) upstream integration, (b) energy and price efficiency, (c) carbon-manufacturing capability, (d) operational excellence, (e) technological and research developmental abilities, and (f) circular economy.