Association between food insecurity, cardiorenal syndrome and all-cause mortality among low-income adults
Originally Published In
Nutrition and Health
Food insecurity is known to be a major public health issue. There is limited data on food insecurity and chronic disease in the general population.
We aimed to assess effect of food insecurity on mortality of individuals with chronic disease like cardiorenal syndrome (CRS).
The study was conducted on participants aged 20 years or older in the United States living below the 130% Federal Poverty Level. We assessed food insecurity utilizing the Household Food Security Survey Module in NHANES survey for the years 1999 to 2010 with mortality follow-up. Prospective analysis was performed using complex samples Cox regression with adjustment for known confounders to determine the relationship of food insecurity and CRS.
Prevalence of food insecurity among the low-income population was 16.1% among males and 21.7% among females. The mean follow-up was 6.5 years. For all-cause mortality, the overall unadjusted hazard ratio (HR) of food insecurity to no food insecurity was 1.28 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18–1.37, p < 0.001). Adjusted HR was elevated, 2.81 (CI 1.57–5.05, p < 0.001), among participants who were CRS-positive and food insecure but closer to 1.0 (2.48 CI 1.73–3.55, p < 0.001) among those who were CRS-positive and food secure, after controlling for medical and demographic risk factors.
Food insecurity is associated with higher mortality than food security. Food insecurity also may modify the effect of CRS on all-cause mortality in a representative general population. Social policy, when addressing food insecurity, should be inclusive among those with specific chronic diseases.