Socio-behavioral factors, oral hygiene level and periodontitis prevalence in a 35-44-year-old Greek adult population: A cross-sectional survey

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Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry

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Background: Sub-optimal oral hygiene is considered as a primary risk factor for periodontitis occurrence. Various socio-behavioral determinants may contribute either independently or by influencing adversely the oral hygiene (OH) level. The aim of the present study was to examine the periodontal status of 35-44-year-old Greek adults and determine the contribution of risk indicators, including the socio-behavioral aspects and the population’s oral hygiene level, on disease prevalence. Material and Methods: In 1218 participants, Community Periodontal Index (CPI), Loss of Attachment (LoA) and simplified Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) were calculated. Multivariable regression models examined the effect of socio-behavioral factors with/without the inclusion of OHI-S level on pocket depth (PD)≥4mm and LoA≥4mm presence. Results: 11.8% of the participants had healthy periodontium, whereas 37.4% and 5.7% presented with shallow and deep pocketing, respectively. 60.3%, 28.7%, and 11.0.% of the adults demonstrated LoA≤3mm, 4-5mm, and ≥6mm, accordingly. Fair and poor oral hygiene significantly increased the likelihood for PD≥4mm (OR=4.8-20.3) and LoA≥4mm (OR=3.3-6.0) presence. ‘Emergency-oriented dental visiting pattern’ significantly elevated the chance for PD≥4mm presence (OR=1.7). ‘Lower education level’ ‘urban location’, and ‘using an interdental brush’ were significantly independently linked to LoA≥4mm occurrence (OR=1.7-2.1, 1.5, and 2.0, respectively). Lower educated individuals demonstrated inferior oral hygiene status, which in turn elevated significantly the chances of PD≥4mm presence. Smoking more than 10 cigarettes/day, emergency-oriented dental attendance pattern and not flossing were linked to worse oral hygiene levels, which consequently increased significantly the likelihood of LoA≥4mm occurrence. Conclusions: Fair and poor oral hygiene contribute strongly to periodontitis occurrence. Various socio-behavioral factors may influence adversely oral hygiene maintenance, leading to periodontitis manifestations.