Risk Factors for Bloodstream Infections Among an Urban Population with Skin and Soft Tissue Infections: A Retrospective Unmatched Case-Control Study
Introduction: The prevalence of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) continues to increase. Bloodstream infection (BSI) is a severe secondary complication of ABSSSI. The objective of this study was to determine clinical and sociodemographic risk factors for BSI in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs) and to determine if sociodemographic factors impact severity at presentation. Methods: This was a retrospective unmatched(1:1) case-control study. Predictors of BSI and severe infection were sought through multivariable logistic regression analyses. Cases and controls were collected from two major medical centers located in downtown Detroit, Michigan: the Detroit Medical Center and the Henry Ford Health System. The population of interest included adult patients with community-onset (CO) ABSSSI treated at a participating hospital between January 2010 and December 2015. Cases were defined as those developing BSI within 48 h of admission with CO-ABSSSI as the primary source, while controls were those with CO-ABSSSI without BSI. Results: A total of 392 patients (196 cases, 196 controls) were included. Independent predictors of BSI were male gender (aOR 1.85: 95% CI 1.11, 3.66), acute renal failure (aOR 2.08: 95% CI 1.18, 3.66), intravenous drug use (aOR 4.38, 95% CI 2.22, 8.62), and prior hospitalization (aOR 2.41, 95% CI 1.24, 4.93). African American race (aOR 2.18, 95% CI 1.38, 3.4), leukocytosis (aOR 2.24, 95% CI 1.41, 3.55), and prior hospitalization (aOR 2.07, 95% CI 1.19, 3.00) were significantly associated with infection severity. Conclusion: Both clinical and sociodemographic factors were associated with BSI and severe infection underscoring the importance of social determinants of health in outcomes among underserved populations.