Global Trends and Prostate Cancer: A Review of Incidence, Detection, and mortality as influenced by Race, Ethnicity, and Geographic Location

Document Type


Publication Date

Fall 8-25-2018

Originally Published In

American Journal of Men's Health

Volume Number


Issue Number


Page Numbers

1807 - 1823


Although research has reported that prostate cancer (PCa) incidence and mortality rates are among the highest for African Americans, the data is inconclusive regarding PCa rates in native African men, Black men residing in other countries, and men in Asia, Europe, and the Americas. Data reveals that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing and disease incidence have risen significantly in developing and Asian countries, and PCa has become one of the leading male cancers in many of those nations.

The objective of this study was to review published peer-reviewed studies that address PCa in different regions of the world to get a better understanding of how PCa incidence, prevalence, detection, and mortality are influenced by race, ethnicity, and geography. A secondary goal was to compare PCa data from various world regions to contextualize how disproportionate the incidence and mortality rates are among men from the African diaspora versus men of European, Hispanic, and Asian descent, as well as to highlight the need for more robust screening and treatment guidelines in developing countries.

There are differences in incidence and mortality rates between men of African, Asian, Hispanic, and European ancestry, confirming the involvement of genetic factors. However, differences between men of the same race and ethnicity who live in different countries suggest that environmental factors may also be implicated. Availability and access to diagnostic and health-care services as well as recommendations regarding PCa testing vary from country to country and contribute to the variability in incidence and mortality rates.