Date of Conferral



Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




Dannett G. Babb


Literacy By 3 (LB3) was created by administrators in a Southeastern U.S. school district to address 3rd graders’ low reading achievement. Little was understood about experiences, instructional practices, and perceptions of LB3 reading literacy teachers and coaches. The purpose of this basic qualitative study was to explore teachers’ and coaches’ experiences, instructional practices, and perceptions with LB3. The conceptual framework was based on Cooperrider’s and Srivastva’s concept of appreciative inquiry that defines organization’s progress contingent on development of its successes. Research questions focused on teachers’ and coaches’ experiences, instructional practices, and perceptions using LB3 to improve reading literacy and what elements of the program linked to improved reading literacy. Purposive sampling was used to select eight reading teachers and four reading coaches, who taught LB3 for at least one year, to participate in semistructured interviews. Emergent coding analysis revealed that participants perceived LB3 to work well, although some program components were not used at times. Teachers and coaches reported that LB3 facilitated improved differentiated instructional practices and reading literacy through phonics, read-alouds, guided and independent reading, and writing instruction. Teachers expressed the need to see LB3 instruction modeled by trainers during professional development sessions. Coaches stated that successful teachers should serve as these models. Findings helped to create a 3-day LB3 district-wide training. Results could contribute to positive social change by guiding teachers’ and coaches’ efforts to improve reading curricula which could contribute to a better quality of life for students through the increase of reading literacy skills.