Date of Conferral







Wade Smith


Research has shown that only some teachers use learner-centered approaches in their instruction. However, it is unclear why and how those teachers use such approaches in their instruction. The purpose of this study was to examine one program—feedback, feed up, and feed forward—to understand why and how teachers choose to use this learner-centered instructional method. The study was framed by the concept of learner-centered instruction. With basic qualitative methodology, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 8 high school teachers from an island near the United States. The collected data were analyzed using open and axial coding to reveal the themes and patterns. Results indicated that teachers used the feedback, feed up, and feed forward program’s formative assessment strategies because this allowed them to make their students central in the learning process. They believed that the use of these strategies helped their students to improve their learning by teaching them the skills to set their own goals, reflect on their learning progress and the progress of their peers, and determine what actions to take to continue learning. Further, teachers indicated that they worked to function as facilitators in their classrooms, continuously adjusting their instruction and leveraging technology to provide students with opportunities to improve. The results of this research can assist teachers and administrators in creating a learning environment where students become independent, lifelong learners, thus contributing to positive social change.

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