Date of Conferral







Janice Long


Hispanic or Latino and Asian communities represent two of the rapid-growing ethnicities who seek healthcare in the United States. However, the U.S. nursing workforce does not reflect the ethnic or cultural makeup of the patient population. The purpose of this study was to examine the lived experiences of Asian and Hispanic or Latino English as a second language (ESL) nursing students and learn the barriers and facilitators they experienced in their nursing program. A qualitative phenomenological approach underpinned by the social-ecological model and the Cummins language acquisition model was used for the study. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 7 Asian and 7 Hispanic or Latino ESL nursing students who were identified through purposeful and snowball sampling. The phenomenological analysis revealed common facilitators for both study groups as a supportive learning environment within the school's organization; emotional and financial support of family, friends, and work; and positive norms and values in school. Common barriers perceived were language barriers; faculty, classmates, and family limited support and guidance and poor time management; and the academic expectations set by society. Faculty support, repetitive reading/studying, and collaboration with classmates were perceived as critical to learning. Findings suggest that schools of nursing might adopt teaching and writing support strategies tailored to the ESL students' cultural needs and diversity which may result in positive social change by promoting the academic success of ESL Hispanic or Latino and Asian nursing students.