Date of Conferral







David Cavazos


Effectively managing the turnover of qualified staff has become a major challenge for managers. In this dynamic business era, companies in various industries experience an annual staff turnover rate of at least 10%. Scholars have linked employee turnover to job dissatisfaction and inadequate leadership styles. A quantitative non-experimental correlation study was conducted to examine the relationship between servant, transactional, and transformational leadership styles and employee job satisfaction as well as the moderating and mediating mechanisms in which this relationship occurs. The theoretical framework for this study included Harber and McMaster's dynamic leadership approach, the adaptable emphasis leadership model by Staats, and the comparative model on transformational and servant leadership by Smith, Montagno, and Kuzmenko. Data were collected using a survey of 712 adult employees working in different organizations around the world. Pearson correlation analysis, hierarchical multiple regression, and mediation testing were used to analyze data. Findings indicated that there was a correlation between transformational/servant leadership and job satisfaction, but that there was no correlation between transactional leadership and job satisfaction. Results indicated that the relationship between servant/transformational leadership and job satisfaction was stronger in stable environments than in turbulent environments, and that follower maturity mediates the relationship between transformational/servant leadership and job satisfaction regardless of the follower maturity level. Findings supported the development of a new dynamic leadership approach in which leadership style can be tailored to follower maturity and the dynamism level of the organizational environment. Results might serve as a source of policy guidance for organizational leaders to provide an appropriate leadership response to employee job satisfaction according to the maturity level of the people they lead and the frequency of organizational pressures they face.