Date of Conferral



Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




Kimberley F. Alkins


Research indicates that teachers can be reluctant to integrate technology into their instructional practices. This study examined the problem of insufficient technology integration in high school classrooms, using social learning theory and motivational systems theory as theoretical frameworks. A cross-sectional survey design was used to investigate the relationship between the independent variables, technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), teacher self-efficacy (TSE), and teacher characteristics (experience, education, and subject taught), and the dependent variable, technology integration level (TI). A combined online TPACK questionnaire, Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale, and Concerns-Based Adoption Model survey were completed by 72 teachers from 6 high schools in an urban Georgia school district to assess their levels of TPACK, TSE, and TI. Linear regression analysis and one-way analysis of variance identified significant relationships between TI level and TPACK subscales: teacher knowledge (B = .311, r = .601, p = .011), content knowledge (B = .293, r = .279, p = .033), and technological pedagogical content knowledge (B = .612, r = .666, p = .000); TSES subscale: instructional strategies (B = .319, r = .337, p = .021), and TSE-Total (B = .281, r = .281, p = .017). Significant mean differences in TI scores were found between vocational/technical education teachers and other teachers of non-core subjects, F(5, 66) = 2.692, p = .028. Even in technologically well-equipped schools, teachers' choices to utilize or not to utilize technology creates inequity in technological knowledge that adversely affect student learning outcomes. Professional development based on this study's findings; therefore, will engender positive social change by promoting educational equity through improved TI practices among urban high school teachers.