Date of Conferral





Public Health


Hadi Danawi


The role played by the belief about voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) in predicting HIV status has not been examined. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there were any differences between belief about VMMC, unprotected sex, age, number of sexual partners, relationship status, and HIV status among circumcised males aged between 18-49 years in Homa Bay County, Kenya. Drawing from the health belief model and case-control study design, 936 men were recruited based on their HIV status (468 HIV cases and 468 controls). A bivariate logistic regression was applied, and the results indicated that unprotected sex, age, number of sexual partners, and relationship status were associated with HIV status, while belief about VMMC in isolation and after controlling for other variables was not. Those who had unprotected sex were 62% more likely of being HIV positive than those who had protected sex (OR = 0.622, 95% CI [0.320, 0.924], p<.001); the odds of being HIV positive among males aged 39-49 years was 1.754 times higher than those 18-24 years (OR = 1.754, 95% CI [1.336, 2.171], p < .001); one increase in number of sexual partner increased the likelihood of being HIV positive by 13% (OR = 0.454, 95% CI [0.366, 0.542], p = .005); and multiple relations increased the probability of being HIV positive by 1.535 times (OR = 1.535, 95% CI [1.203, 1.868], p = < .001). HIV prevention strategies should target males aged between 39-49 years who engage in unprotected sex with a greater number of partners. This study adds to positive social change by providing policymakers and health stakeholders with baseline data on sexual behaviors to impact HIV prevention.