Date of Conferral







David Banner


Employees who have lower levels of organizational identification (OID) can exhibit negative perceptions of leaders and managers within the organization. Lower levels of OID can lead to adverse employee attitudes and behaviors. Grounded in the social identity theory and spiritual intelligence (SQ) construct, the research questions for this quantitative correlation study were to investigate the relationship between SQ and OID. A simple random probability sampling design was used to sample midlevel supervisors and frontline managers using online self-report surveys. A total of 74 midlevel supervisors and 76 frontline managers completed the Spiritual Intelligence Self-Report Inventory and Mael and Ashforth's OID Six-Item Scale. The Spearman's rho correlation results were significant, with high levels of SQ associated with lower levels of OID. The results of the bivariate regression analysis were statistically significant and revealed that SQ predicted OID. A key recommendation is for organizational leaders to develop future leaders and managers who can effectively utilize SQ and OID in building quality relationships with frontline employees. The implications for positive social change include the potential for supervisory and frontline managers to create viable work contexts that enhance employees' attitudes, promote community and trusting relationships, and foster a sense of meaning in workload responsibilities.