Date of Conferral





Public Health


Srikanta Banerjee


The burden of co-occurring disorders (CODs) among offenders in the criminal justice system (CJS) in the United States, particularly among the female population, is threatening the communities. About 80% of women in the CJS were diagnosed and treated for CODs, and 63% tend to be rearrested. The study examined the possible influence of CODs, integrated treatment of CODs, and gender, on recidivism while controlling for other demographic factors. The study was based on the conceptual framework of integrated dual disorder treatment (IDDT) and feminist criminology theory. Cross-sectional quantitative study design was applied on a secondary dataset from the 2017 Treatment Episode Data Set - Discharge (TEDS-D). All the eligible records, based on the study inclusion and exclusion criteria, were analyzed. Frequency distribution tables, chi-square test, and multivariable logistic regression model were used to describe the participants and determine the associations between the independent variables and the dependent variable (recidivism). A total of 442,905 participants were analyzed. Most (38%) of them were between 25 to 34 years old and majority (71.4%) were men. The associations between prevalence of COD (Odds Ratio [OR] = 0.81; Confidence Interval [CI] 0.79, 0.84), previous treatment episode (OR = 1.3; CI 1.30, 1.28) and recidivism were statistically significant. Women appear to be at higher risks (8.7%) of recidivism than men (7.8%). In conclusion, COD and previous treatment episode are associated with recidivism. The social implications of these findings are the potential to promote individualized and gender-sensitive treatment, which may reduce recidivism, reduce incidence of crimes, and promote safer and healthier communities.