Date of Conferral



Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.)


Business Administration


Dorothy Hanson


In 2018, the failure rate of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Ghana was approximately 75%. SME owners and managers who refuse to recognize HRM strategies as a way for business sustainability risk closure. Grounded in Blau's social exchange theory, the purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore human resource strategies leaders of SMEs use to sustain their businesses. Participants were 4 SME leaders in the Tamale metropolitan area of Ghana who successfully used human resource management strategies to promote the sustainability of their businesses. Data were collected from semistructured face-to-face interviews, focus group discussions, and company documents. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Six themes emerged: human resources as critical assets, training and development, compensation and benefits, recruitment and selection, involvement in decision making, and the God factor. Business leaders should critically consider employees as the most important asset of the organization and provide appropriate compensation and training strategies for the sustainability of their business. The implications for positive social change are the potential for SME leaders to create more jobs, to reduce unemployment, and contribute to the local economy.