Date of Conferral







Jay R. Greiner


During people’s pain experience, certain difficulties may emerge within individuals’ psychological and social domains that can confound and exacerbate the frequency of their pain-related distress episodes. Previous research has consistently found psychosocial factors evident during the first months of unresolved pain are reliable predictors of pain chronicity and disability at 12 months. This exploratory descriptive quantitative multivariate study included 2 nationwide online surveys that examined the frequency of moderate-to-severe symptoms of distress within the anxiety-depression spectrum, and the extent that 8 pain-related factors influenced and predicted episodes of anxiety and depressed mood, which included 2 demographic risk factors (age range and gender), 3 medical protocol-related factors (general musculoskeletal diagnosis, pain intensity, and pain interference), and 3 psychosocial issues (perceived rejection, quality of life, and satisfaction with life). Respondents were recruited online and screened for eligibility to participate in each survey. Participants were 18 years of age or older with either a recent musculoskeletal injury or recently diagnosed musculoskeletal condition lasting no more than 4 months since onset. The study found perceived rejection was the most reliable predictor and had the greatest effect on anxiety episodes, and that pain interference reliably predicted and had the greatest effect upon episodes of depressed mood. The findings from the present study suggest that to properly prevent chronic pain and minimize pain-related disability, greater attention needs to be directed toward the psychosocial issues that emerge during the course of individuals’ transitional pain experience.