Date of Conferral



Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.)


Business Administration


Daniel J. Smith


The high turnover rates of entry-level employees adversely affect the profits of small retail businesses. Small business owners in Ghana may benefit by retaining entry-level employees and reducing replacement and training costs. Grounded in Herzberg’s two-factor theory, the purpose of this descriptive, single-case study was to identify strategies some small retail business leaders in Accra, Ghana, used to reduce the high rate of entry-level employee turnover. The participants were 6 retail business leaders recommended by their director of human resources because of the participants’ experience implementing strategies to minimize entry-level employees’ high turnover rates. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews with 6 leaders and a 3-member focus group discussion. The data were analyzed using Yin’s five-step process of analysis, and 5 themes emerged: training, trust, mentoring, motivation, and incentives. Small business leaders should provide mentoring, training, and incentives to develop new employees’ trust and motivation. Improving retention rates of entry-level employees may contribute to positive social change by increasing employees’ incomes and business growth, thereby contributing to additional tax revenue that will benefit hospitals, schools, community infrastructure, and job creation. Also, a better work environment contributes to the worth and dignity of entry-level employees.

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