Date of Conferral



Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.)




Kathleen Andrews


Employee turnover leads to increased operational costs and workloads and affects sales performance. Reducing employee turnover is essential for managers of small and medium sized enterprises to minimize costs and increase sales performance. Grounded in the job embeddedness theory, the purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to explore strategies managers of small and medium sized enterprises use to reduce employee turnover that negatively affects sales performance. The participants consisted of 3 managers of small and medium sized enterprises in the Bronx, New York. Data were collected using semistructured, face-to-face interviews, and a review of organizational documents. A thematic analysis identified three themes: recognition and rewards, training and career advancement opportunities, and effective communication. A key recommendation is that managers of small and medium sized enterprises devise recognition and rewards strategies to increase employee retention. The implications for social change include the potential to improve service quality and delivery that adds value to customers and may foster the social and economic life of the people in the community. Reduced employee turnover and increased sales may result in increased profits that organizations may use to support education and development programs in the community.

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