Date of Conferral







Tracy Marsh


Race-related stress such as ancestral trauma and experiences of out- and in-group microaggressions can be intergenerationally transmitted from parent to child. The current study was conducted to address the need for research on race-related trauma and out- and in-group discrimination by providing evidence-based research on whether African descendants experiencing and witnessing race-related stress and intraracial microaggressions results in low self-efficacy. The purpose of this quantitative, multiple regression design was to explore the relationships among race-related stress, intraracial microaggressions, and self-efficacy, which may provide clarity on the psychological impact of these stressors. This study addressed the question of whether race-related stress and intraracial microaggressions predicted the internal self-efficacy, powerful others self-efficacy, and chance self-efficacy of African descendants. The theoretical framework was based on three theories: epigenetic transmission, racial identity development, and social learning theory. The study consisted of a random sample of 119 African Descendent males and females 18 years and older. A regression analyses was used to identify the relationships among these three variables. Results of this study revealed that though a great percentage of African Descendants may have high internal self-efficacy, they believed that external factors determined their outcomes. Understanding the transmission of generations of race-related stress and intraracial microaggressions is important for healing future generations. These results may encourage the development of educational and professional programs that promote empathy, engage diverse agencies, and prompt positive social changes.