Date of Conferral





Criminal Justice


Gregory Campbell


Probation and parole officers (PPOs) deviate from evidence-based practices implemented to reduce recidivism among adult felony offenders. PPOs fail to adhere to risk-need assessment results during case management, but prior research has not established the reasons for this deviation. This qualitative phenomenological study explored the lived experiences of PPOs implementing the risk needs responsivity (RNR) model by addressing the criminogenic needs of adult felony offenders. The theoretical framework for this study was based on Lipsky’s street-level bureaucracy theory, Becker’s labeling theory, and Andrews and Bonta’s RNR theory. This study involved in-depth, individual, semistructured interviews with 6 participants. The data were analyzed using Braun and Clarke’s six phases of thematic analysis. The results of this study identified three themes related to PPOs addressing criminogenic needs: (a) individual-centric factors, (b) organizational-centric factors, and (c) inherent-centric factors. This study’s results indicate that, although PPOs strive to address criminogenic needs, PPOs prioritize noncriminogenic needs or responsivity. The implications for social change from this study include community supervision organizations successfully implementing RNR to have a greater impact on reducing offenders’ risk factors. Additionally, PPOs and society may have an increase in understanding their impact on recidivism and individuals overcoming labels that impede rehabilitation efforts. Future research should explore the perceptions of diverse demographics among probation and parole officers, correctional officers, and community stakeholders to address criminogenic needs.