Date of Conferral





Public Health


Vibha Kumar


Typhoid fever is a bacterial disease transmitted by the fecal-oral route. In Nigeria, the condition is life threatening and endemic. It affects communities such as Nimo that have limited water, sanitation, and hygiene infrastructure. Previous researchers focused on sanitation and hygienic conditions that contribute to the disease such as household-level hygiene and food and water contamination, including handling practices. However, there is limited knowledge on how the environmental behavior and living conditions of eating and sleeping on a floor harboring fecal materials affect typhoid fever prevalence. The purpose of this qualitative phenomenological study was to explore the perception of the Nimo villagers regarding the contributing risk factors of typhoid fever and the etiology. This study centered on the health belief model that focuses on people’s willingness or the ability to change their behaviors. An ecological model was used, according to which individuals interact with their physical and sociocultural environments. There were 15 participants between the ages of 20 and 71 years old who live permanently in Nimo. Face-to-face interviews with semistructured and standardized open-ended questions were used for the data collection. Moustakas’s modified Van Kaam’s step of the phenomenological analysis was used to analyze the data and report emergent themes. The findings from the participants revealed a limited understanding of risk factors and the causes of typhoid fever. Also, findings revealed that lack of the basic amenities influenced their hygiene practices. Positive social change may result from the policy changes tailored to educating on the effects of the disease and improving the environment for the villagers by providing the needed essential amenities.