Date of Conferral





Counselor Education and Supervision


Wenndy Dupkoski


Recidivism continues to be a major problem in the United States criminal justice system and yet, there is minimal research that addresses recidivism among African American male ex-offenders with co-occurring disorders who are on probation and or parole under community supervision and trying to gain access or reentry into the community. This quantitative study was to examine the relationship between co-occurring disorders and incidence of recidivism among African American male ex-offenders who have been hospitalized and treated for mental illness at some point in their lives. Also, considering that the inpatient treatment or hospitalization of offenders and ex-offenders with serious mental illness and substance use disorder should be of utmost important in the local, state, and federal correctional facilities; quantitative cross-sectional design was chosen to examine whether there is a relationship between age, prior criminal history, mental illness, substance use disorder, inpatient treatment, gainful employment, education, family support, differentiation of self, and community/social support and the likelihood of recidivism. The Bowen family systems theory was the lens that provided the theoretical framework for this study for examining the archival data that was obtained from Texas Department of Criminal Justice. The multiple regression analysis (MRA) revealed that hospitalization/treatment, gainful employment, family support, age of offender at released, and differentiation of self decreased the likelihood to recidivate. MRA also showed that substance use disorder did have a significant relationship with recidivism while the presence of mental illness and education level showed no relationship. Findings from this study will positively effect positive social change by ensuring that any program and policy development must address treatment, promote public safety, and consider the economic structure, or the economic community of the African American male offenders and ex-offenders for positive outcome.