Date of Conferral





Public Health


Peter B. Anderson


A lack of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) increases the risk of onward human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and mortality. The purpose of this cross-sectional study based on Andersen's conceptual framework was to test the associations between age, marital status, job/occupational status, education, membership in a peer support group, community, and facility ARV drug refill and alcohol and substance use, and adherence to ART among female sex workers (FSWs) who are 15 years and older in Rivers and Cross Rivers states Nigeria. Data were abstracted from existing program data collected between January 2015 and December 2017 by Heartland Alliance International, Nigeria. Results from chi-square statistics showed that age, job/employment, and marital status were not associated with adherence to ART. Binary logistic regression analyses showed that respondents with senior secondary education were 1.385 times more likely to adhere to ART than other education levels (OR = 1.385, 95% CI = 1.203, 1.593). Respondents who had ARV refill in the facility were 1.737 times more likely to adhere to ART than respondents who had community ARV refill (OR= 1.737, 95% CI: 1.297, 2.326). Also, respondents who were a member of a support group were 6.430 times more likely to adhere to ART compared to those not in a support group (OR= 6.430, 95% CI: 4.682, 8.831). Lastly, respondents who did not abuse alcohol or substance were 1.820 times likely to adhere to ART compared to those who did (OR= 1.820, 95%: CI: 1.356, 2.444). All-inclusive key population policies could aid in lessening the barriers the FSWs face in receiving comprehensive health services as well as endorsing interventions such as alcohol and drug rehabilitation, counseling, and incentives to join peer support groups that could benefit FSWs, their clients, and families.