Date of Conferral





Human Services


Gregory P. Hickman


Military cultural competence has gained attention due to the past 15 years of military conflict and ongoing deployment of troops around the globe. Returning veterans, particularly those who go on to experience homelessness, have reported negative experiences and adverse treatment from programs that were designed to support them. Those experiences have resulted in perceived barriers to access or use of such services. Researchers have established the need for increased levels of military cultural competence to develop rapport with veterans and their families when delivering community-based social and healthcare services. Bandura's self-efficacy theory was the theoretical framework of this study. This study examined the relationship between military cultural competence, socialization tactics, and perceived self-efficacy of service providers employed with Continuum of Care Program member organizations that served veterans experiencing homelessness. Data were collected utilizing a cross-sectional web-based survey. After conducting a bivariate correlation, a statistically significant relationship was found between military cultural competence levels, socialization tactics, and self-efficacy levels. After conducting multiple linear regression, it was found that socialization tactics did not moderate the relationship between military cultural competence levels on self-efficacy levels. Though moderation was not found, leadership of organizations that support veterans may want to consider these factors to inform onboarding and training decisions. Addressing behaviors and attitudes of service providers may support social change by reducing adverse treatment that creates barriers to access and use of programs and services.