Date of Conferral



Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




Anissa Harris


A self-study at a local elementary school revealed that homework assignments appeared to be at lower levels of Bloom’s taxonomy, and students were inadequately prepared for summative assessments that required the application and critical thinking levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. Formative assessment data, ideally, drives teachers’ instructional decisions in the classroom. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to better understand the formative assessment processes that drive instructional decision making. The conceptual framework by Chappuis and influenced by Black and Wiliam includes the strategic process for successful formative assessment teaching and learning. The research questions explored the use of homework as a formative assessment in classrooms. In this intrinsic case study, data collection included face to face interviews with 10 general education Grade 3-5 teachers in 2 different schools within the same, a 2- week document analysis of homework assigned in language arts and mathematics, and a focus group of participants. The data were analyzed with open coding followed by axial coding to determine themes. Member checking and triangulation were used to ensure validity and accuracy. The themes that emerged from the coded data identified ineffective teacher use of feedback, self-assessment, and learning targets—essential practices of the formative assessment process. Improving the formative assessment process for teaching and learning may encourage positive social change through promoting teacher selfefficacy and collaboration through a professional development paired with a professional learning community. This study may also lead teachers to change their formative assessment processes and provide guided instruction that enhances student learning outcomes.