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An improved understanding of the role of housing in asthma prevalence among African-American children is essential to addressing the issues associated with asthma and housing that perpetuate racial and ethnic health disparities. This study was conducted to examine the influence of substandard housing on the odds of asthma among low-income African-American children. The social ecological model was used as the theoretical framework for this study, that allowed consideration of the housing environment where African-American children live as an influential determinant of respiratory health. A cross-sectional research design using data obtained from the 2012 National Health Interview Survey and Comprehensive Housing Affordability Strategy were used to examine the association between income level and asthma and substandard housing and asthma among African-American children. Odds ratios derived from logistic regressions were used to determine the significance of the association between family income level and asthma diagnosis among African-American children. Linear regression was used to assess the strength of the association between an affirmative asthma diagnosis and substandard housing among low-income African-American children. The findings derived from this study suggest that income level was the most significant predictor of asthma risk among African-American children between the ages of 5-14 regardless of the absence or presence of housing issues within the child's home environment. The conclusions of this study have the potential to enact social change by demonstrating the need for improved population health data and additional research into other variables, beyond the scope of housing, that contribute to asthma risk in African-American children.