Date of Conferral
Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)
Spirituality and nursing have been intertwined from the beginning of the profession; however, there is little evidence that clearly defines spiritual nursing care and no standardized practices that can be included in the routine preoperative plan of care for patients undergoing invasive surgical procedures. The purpose of this project was to conduct a systematic review of the literature to define spiritual care and identify specific spiritual nursing care interventions. The biopsychosocial model, Narayanasamy's transcultural care practice model, and Watson's theory of human caring provided the theoretical framework for the project. MEDLINE, PubMed, Wiley online library, SCIENCE, WOS, Cochrane, and SciELO databases were searched for the literature review. Keywords and phrases used included spirituality, spiritual nursing care, holistic health practices, inpatient, hospital, and preoperative care. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) II tool was used for data analysis. Interventions found in the literature to be supportive of spirituality included healing presence; providing effective communication; praying with the patient and family or facilitating other religious rituals; using the therapeutic self to be with the patient; listening to and exploring the patients' spiritual perspectives; and showing support and empathy through patient-centered caring, nurturing spirituality, and creating a healing environment. Employing these nursing actions might promote positive social change by contributing to a sense of well-being as patients find meaning and purpose in their illness and life overall, which will promote improved surgical outcomes and better patient satisfaction with care.