Date of Conferral







Micheal T. Plasay


Decreased testosterone levels (hypogonadism) in middle-aged men (aged 45-64) has been associated with increased levels of depression. Studies have suggested that increases in anxiety and/or attention problems may also be associated with hypogonadism but have not provided empirical evidence to support these suggestions. The purpose of this quantitative study was to examine depression, anxiety, and attention problems in middle-aged men using a psychological self-report inventory. The theoretical model used in this study was the biomedical model, which combined pharmacological treatment with psychological self-report inventories to determine if there was an association or relationship between the testosterone levels in men and the psychological distress experienced by men who have become hypogonadal. A total of 179 males were recruited through local physicians. There was a statistically significant difference and a small size effect in the level of depression, anxiety, and/or attention issues experienced by those who were receiving TRT versus those who were not. This study may provide some guidance to medical clinicians, such as psychiatrists, primary-care physicians, and endocrinologists, as well as clinical psychologists who see middle-aged men in their practice settings.