Date of Conferral







Donna Russell


The focus of this research study was on the experiences and perceptions of Mandarin Chinese teachers who used technologies and innovative instructional methods to teach second language skills to young learners. The conceptual framework drew on 3 theories: (a) Vygotsky’s sociocultural learning theory, (b) Schӧn’s action theory, and (c) Mishra and Koehler’s technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK). The research questions focused on the experiences of early childhood teachers integrating TPACK to teach Mandarin Chinese and how do early childhood teachers perceive the use of instructional methods to teach Mandarin Chinese. Purposeful sampling was used to identify 8 Mandarin Chinese language teachers who taught Mandarin Chinese to students in preschool through 3rd grade. Data were collected through semistructured interviews, a questionnaire centered on TPACK, and a reflective journal entry. The data were analyzed through thematic inductive analysis using cross-case analysis to identify codes, patterns, and emerging themes that explored the teacher’s experiences. The overall findings in this study indicated that teachers experienced positive outcomes integrating technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge in the early childhood language learning classroom. The finding has the potential for social change by increasing technological and instructional resources and materials in early childhood language learning classrooms and providing on-going professional development for Mandarin Chinese language teachers in American schools.