Date of Conferral





Public Health


Wen-Hung Kuo


One in every 4 people living with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) are women. The leading cause of infection is heterosexual contact. The purpose of this quantitative, correlational study was to examine the relationship between gender ratio perception and masculine ideology and a woman's decision to use condoms during her sexual activity. The theory of gender and power and the theory of planned behavior served as the theoretical frameworks for this study. The perceptions of gender ratios, as measured by the Gender Ratio Imbalance Beliefs and Behaviors Scale (GRIBBS) subscale, GRIBeliefs, and masculine ideologies, as measured by the Gender Role Beliefs Scale (GRBS), served as independent variables, while condom use behaviors, as measured by the Gender Ratio Imbalance Beliefs and Behaviors Scale (GRIBBS) subscale, GRIBehaviors, served as the dependent variable. Covariates included demographic factors, as well as behavioral factors. A purposeful, convenience sample (n=55) via the Walden University research pool was utilized, enabling researchers to use readily available data that represented college educated women. Descriptive statistics, independent t-tests, correlational analysis, as well as multiple linear regression were used to examine the aforementioned perceptions of study participants. Correlation analyses and multiple regression indicated no statistically significant correlations between gender ratio imbalance, masculine ideology, and condom use, while controlling for race, employment status, religion, religious devoutness, sexual orientation, relationship status, STD history (self), and partner STD history. Social change is indicated via the results illustrating the possible empowerment of women regarding their sexual health.