Date of Conferral
Doctor of Nursing Practice (DNP)
The use of telehealth in healthcare has grown in recent years; however, little is known about the effectiveness of this delivery method in the management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Guided by the chronic care model and telehealth in chronic disease model, the purpose of this systematic literature review was to explore evidence related to lowering hemoglobin A1c levels and managing T2DM using telehealth in the outpatient setting. The practice-focused questions explored telehealth interventions used in T2DM management and their effectiveness. The Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) method for conducting systematic literature reviews was the process, and data were compiled using the PRISMA evidence-based minimum set for reporting. Eighteen studies met the inclusion criteria for this project. Data were extracted, analyzed, and synthesized using JBI tools for data extraction and critical appraisal. Article appraisals revealed numerous telehealth interventions for management of T2DM including telephone, Internet-based, clinical video, remote monitoring, and smart phones/applications. Overall, telehealth interventions showed statistically significant improvement in the hemoglobin A1c levels of participants compared to traditional outpatient care. Success of the interventions is associated with components of evidenced-based diabetes management such as education, self-management, support, and feedback loop. The implications of this project for positive social change include the integration of telehealth interventions in the outpatient setting to manage T2DM with enhanced access to care, reduction in health disparities, and improved health outcomes for society.