Date of Conferral







Barry W. Birnbaum


Schools in Florida used the multitiered system of support response to intervention framework to help students achieve the state and national standards but, in the national report card, 61% of the fourth-graders assessed in mathematics failed to achieve proficiency. Research indicated that the students lacked mathematical word problem-solving skills. The purpose of the qualitative study was to discover how fourth-grade special and general education teachers used the response to intervention framework evidence-based curriculum, instruction, intervention, assessment, and student data to teach math word problem-solving skills to children who have persistent and significant difficulties. Welner’s zone of mediation framework and Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory form the conceptual framework for the study. The teachers provided data through in-depth interviews, math intervention program, training document, teachers’ guides, assessment tools, and observation. All the data was uploaded to the latest version of NVivo and analyzed based on the research questions. The study findings showed that participants used all the features of the response to intervention framework to teach math word problem-solving skills and address the needs of at-risk students. Teachers should continuously reinforce math vocabulary, terminology, and math reading comprehension skills of students. Administrators and teachers should be able to use the findings of this study to improve the use of the response to intervention features to develop the math word problem-solving skills of students and influence teachers’ pedagogical practices.