Date of Conferral







Maxwell Rainforth


Past research has shown the likelihood of work-to-family conflict in employees' struggle to manage work, family, and personal life, however, work-to-family conflict remained unexamined in employees' job attitudes at different job levels. Previous studies highlighted that employees at higher job level experience greater work-to-family conflict than employees at lower job level. The purpose of the study was to examine the moderating effects of job level (supervisory or managerial and nonsupervisory or nonmanagerial) on the relationships between work-to-family conflict and job attitudes (job satisfaction, work engagement, organizational commitment, and turnover intention). In this quantitative study, the theoretical framework included conflict theory and role enhancement theory. A convenience sampling of 149 working adults, aged 18 years to 65 years) volunteered to participate in an online survey. Participants completed an online survey. Collected data were analyzed using regression analysis. Based on the results, job level of the working adults moderated the relationships between work-to-family conflict and job attitudes, such that the relationship between work-to-family conflict and job attitudes of the working adults was stronger at high job level than at low job level.The findings may contribute to positive social change by providing useful information for human resource and management personnel of organizations in designing job level-specific training programs (e.g., work-life balance practices) and structuring appropriate settings (e.g., alternate work locations) to take control of leading, managing or coordinating projects, tasks or events in their work situations.