Date of Conferral



Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.)




Teresa Jepma


Many organizational leaders manage virtual employees without the specific training and experience required for leading a virtual organization, which can lead to billions of dollars in lost productivity. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore strategies managers used to manage a virtual office. The target population consisted of 4 managers located in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States who had a minimum of 2 years of experience managing virtual offices. The conceptual framework for this study was social exchange theory. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and a review of company documents. Data were analyzed using manual coding and a qualitative data analysis software; member checking and triangulation were used to enhance validity. Key themes emerged from data analysis related to management strategies: communication, leadership, and developing relationships. The results of this study might contribute to social change by supporting managers of virtual offices in reducing organizational travel costs and energy use, and supporting workâ??life balance through virtual business practices.