Date of Conferral



Doctor of Business Administration (D.B.A.)




Teresa Jepma


Many organizational leaders manage virtual employees without the specific training and experience required for leading a virtual organization, which can lead to billions of dollars in lost productivity. The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore strategies managers used to manage a virtual office. The target population consisted of 4 managers located in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States who had a minimum of 2 years of experience managing virtual offices. The conceptual framework for this study was social exchange theory. Data were collected using semistructured interviews and a review of company documents. Data were analyzed using manual coding and a qualitative data analysis software; member checking and triangulation were used to enhance validity. Key themes emerged from data analysis related to management strategies: communication, leadership, and developing relationships. The results of this study might contribute to social change by supporting managers of virtual offices in reducing organizational travel costs and energy use, and supporting work-life balance through virtual business practices.