Date of Conferral



Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




Dr. Mary Hallums


English as second language (ESL) students are not meeting reading proficiency standards

compared to their native English-speaking middle school peers. To address the low achievement

scores among ESL students, the study site implemented an instructional hub in which trained

ESL resource teachers used the sheltered instruction observation protocol (SIOP) model. The

purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the difference in reading achievement

scores between ESL students who participated in the instructional hub and those who

participated in traditional instruction. Krashen's second language acquisition theory and Terrell's

natural approach theory provided the framework for the study. Archival data from a sample of 70

ESL students were used for data analysis. A paired-samples t test was used to determine whether

the groups reading mean scores (SIOP and traditional) significantly differed from pretest to post

test. The results showed that the SIOP group significantly improved or changed their reading

scores from pre to post scores, while students who were in traditional group did not. Findings

may be used by school district administrators to help teachers use the SIOP model to help ESL

students meet reading proficiency standards and graduate from school.