Date of Conferral



Doctor of Education (Ed.D.)




Derek R. Schroll


Teachers in Lebanese schools are still using outdated traditional strategies for instructing students with learning disabilities (LD). The purpose of this qualitative exploratory case study was to understand Lebanese elementary teachers' perceived barriers to providing effective metacognition skills instruction and increase the understanding of how teachers are supporting students with LD to use metacognitive strategies to enhance their own learning. The conceptual framework used to ground the study was Flavell's metacognitive theory. The purposeful sample included 12 elementary special and regular education teachers selected from 6 different Lebanese schools in 5 areas in Lebanon. Each teacher participated in a semistructed interview and was observed while teaching in the classroom. Coding and thematic inductive approaches based on elements of the conceptual framework were used to analyze the data. Peer debriefing, member checking, and triangulation by region were used to ensure credibility and trustworthiness. The findings revealed that teachers were knowledgeable about how to teach metacognitive skills, but they were not explicitly instructing those skills to students with LD. Among the reported barriers to teaching these skills included lack of time, perceived nature of the LD students' disability, and cultural expectations. The findings were used to provide recommendations for Lebanese teachers to implement in day-to-day instruction for students with LD and for school leaders to build teachers' capacity to engage LD students in constructing their own learning. This study may affect positive social change by promoting instruction of metacognitive strategies for students with LD to help them build lifelong 21st century skills.