Date of Conferral





Human Services


Sandra Harris


Private probation companies were formed to provide supervision to low-risk offenders who committed misdemeanor charges by allowing offenders to reside in the community instead of being incarcerated. However, research has revealed that private probation agencies have become problematic because state and local governments have benefited financially by collecting court costs and probation supervision fees from indigent probationers who are unable to pay. Other researchers have revealed that gender, race, and attorney representation r impact whether a warrant would be issued for failure to pay court costs and supervisions fees. This study examined the predictive relationships between race, gender, attorney representation, and warrants being issued. The theoretical framework for this study was the prison-industrial complex that emphasizes how government and private companies' financial interests are linked to the expansion of the penal system. This study addressed the question of whether gender, race, and attorney representation predicted the likelihood of private probation warrants being issued. A quantitative, correlational, cross-sectional design based upon secondary data analysis was used to address the research question. Results from a logistic regression showed that only race predicted the likelihood of private probation warrants being issued. Results also showed that Black males were more likely to have a warrant issued for their arrest. The findings can be used to advocate fair treatment of Black males who are disproportionately affected by unconstitutional practices of private probation companies. Findings can be used to promote social change by advocating that indigent offenders by offered alternative sentences other than jail when they cannot pay court costs and probation fees.