Date of Conferral







James M. Brown


This study investigated whether the percentage of time that weekly employees spend in virtual workspaces is related to job satisfaction (JS), organizational commitment (OC), perceived supervisor support (PSS) and perceived coworker support (PCS). One hundred thirty-five virtual workers employed by 1 of 5 large, privately owned companies reported the percentage of their work time spent performing virtual work and completed 4 instruments to measure JS, OC, PSS, and PCS. Data were analyzed using multivariate linear regression, multivariate multiple regression, and multivariate analysis of variance. Results showed that virtual workers who spent 75% or more of their time engaged in virtual work had higher JS, OC, and PSS than virtual workers who spent 25% or less of their work time working virtually. No relationship was found between the percentage of time spent working virtually and PCS. Results were also examined to determine whether gender or age moderated any of the relationships found between the percentage of time working virtually and organizational outcomes. Neither gender nor age moderated the relationships observed. The study results showed that as employee time performing virtual work increases, employee and corporate benefits also increase in large, privately owned companies. The results of the study have several potential implications for positive social change for organizations, employees, and society as a whole by providing information to organizations considering increasing the percentage of time employees spend engaging in virtual work, helping society determine how performing virtual work affects an employee's well-being, potentially providing insight to employees regarding the pros and cons of virtual work.