Date of Conferral
Breast cancer is the 2nd leading cause of death among women. While a significant amount of research has been done to understand the different disparities related to this disease, there is still more to learn about the relationship between a person's nationality and the staging of breast cancer. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program as the data source, this retrospective cohort study was aimed at assessing late-stage breast cancer among Caribbean immigrants, specifically comparing Haitian women with Americans and other immigrant populations in the United States. The research questions addressed the link between nationality and the likelihood of late-stage breast cancer diagnosis as well as the risk factors associated with an advanced stage of breast cancer. Findings from logistic regression analyses indicated no statistically significant difference in Stage IV diagnosis between women born in Haiti and U.S.-born women, while the converse was true for women born in other foreign countries. The results also suggested that race, Hispanic ethnicity, marital status, insurance coverage, being unemployed, and language isolation were significant predictors of late-stage breast cancer diagnosis (p < 0.05). When stratifying the analyses by nationality, marital status and poverty were the common predictors of advanced breast cancer diagnosis among Haitian, foreign-born, and U.S.-born women. The observed disparities confirm the need for additional efforts that seek to improve screening rates among underserved groups and ultimately reduce the burden of late-stage breast cancer.