Date of Conferral





Public Health


Patrick B. Williams


Breast cancer is a world health problem and is a leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States. However, breast cancer risks were reported to be reduced through exposure to Vitamin D through its Receptors identified as the p53 target gene. The purpose of this study was to assess the associations between VDR gene polymorphisms knowledge/awareness and decisions to reduce breast cancer risks and likelihood of mammogram screening among women in Texas. Data from survey were used. Roy adaptation model was the theoretical framework that guided this quasi- experimental, quantitative research. The dependent variables were decisions to reduce breast cancer risks and likelihood of mammogram screening. The independent variables were knowledge about VDR gene polymorphisms and exposure to vitamin D. The covariates were level of education, awareness, lifestyle, breast self-exams, mammograms, age, early menarche, late menopause, and family history of breast cancer. The chi-square test and regression analysis were used to test the stated research hypotheses and to answer the research questions. Knowledge of VDR gene polymorphisms and exposure to vitamin D were not significantly associated with breast cancer risk, ï?£2 (3, N= 250) =3.84, p > 0.05. Also, awareness of the risk factors for breast cancer was not significantly associated with decisions to go for mammogram screenings or to enroll in breast cancer risk-reduction programs, ï?£2 (3, N= 250) =1.58, p > 0.05. To advocate for the promotion of awareness of the importance of pharmacogenetic testing for VDR gene polymorphisms for early detection of breast cancer, which would help to undertake appropriate therapeutic measures in a timely manner to prevent cancer metastasis, further research is warranted.