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Public Health


Donald Goodwin


Cholera remains a major public health problem affecting high-risk populations such as camps of internally displaced persons. During a cholera outbreak, it is essential to reduce transmission and minimize new infections. The Miasma theory, host-agent-environment model and Ecosocial theory were utilized for this study. This study was a retrospective comparison to determine whether historical cholera control measures are effective during current cholera outbreaks within camps of internally displaced persons. A quantitative approach ascertained changes in incidence and mortality rates following implementation of primary and/or secondary control measures. Cholera outbreaks were identified from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Disease Outbreak News reports issued between 1996 and 2017. Each reported cholera outbreak was categorized into one of eight outbreak cohorts -- each cohort having the same primary control measure. The WHO Data Repository was used to identify cholera incidence and/or mortalities and the World Bank data set was used for population total to calculate incidence and/or mortality rates for the years prior to and the year of the outbreak to calculate the case percentage change and death percentage change. Analysis of covariance was used to assess statistical significance in rate change within each intervention cohort. No statistical significance was noted within various cholera control intervention. Limitations of this study provide the basis for continued research on this topic; also aligning with the Global Task Force on Cholera to reduce infections by 90% by the year 2030.

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